Glucose
Title: Glucose
CAS Registry Number: 50-99-7
Additional Names: D-Glucose; dextrose; blood sugar; grape sugar; corn sugar
Trademarks: Dextropur; Dextrosol; Glucolin
Molecular Formula: C6H12O6
Molecular Weight: 180.16
Percent Composition: C 40.00%, H 6.71%, O 53.28%
Literature References: A main source of energy for living organisms. Occurs naturally and in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants. Combined in glucosides, in di- and oligosaccharides, in the polysaccharides cellulose and starch, and in glycogen. Normal human blood contains 0.08-0.1%. Manuf on a large scale from starch: Dean, Gottfried, Adv. Carbohydr. Chem. 5, 127 (1950). Below 50°, a-D-glucose hydrate is the stable cryst form, above 50° the anhydr form is obtained and at still higher temps b-D-glucose is formed: W. Pigman, The Carbohydrates (Academic Press, New York, 1957) p 92. Structure: Kjaer, Lindberg, Acta Chem. Scand. 13, 1713 (1959). Conformation: E. Percival, Structural Carbohydrate Chemistry (J. Garnet Miller, London, 1962) pp 51-57. Comprehensive monograph: H. Bartelheimer et al., D-Glucose und verwandte Verbindungen in Medizin und Biologie (Enke, Stuttgart, 1966) 1126 pp.
 
Derivative Type: a-Form monohydrate
Properties: Crystals from water, mp 83°. [a]D +102.0° ® +47.9° (water). 0.74 times as sweet as sucrose. One gram dissolves in about 1 ml water and in about 60 ml alcohol.
Melting point: mp 83°
Optical Rotation: [a]D +102.0° ® +47.9° (water)
 
Derivative Type: a-Form anhydr
Properties: Crystals from hot ethanol or water, mp 146°. [a]D +112.2° ® +52.7° (c = 10 in water). The final value is obtained instantly in the presence of hydroxyl ions. Formula for varying concns: [a]D20 +52.5° + 0.0188p (p = g/100 ml). pH of 0.5 molar aq soln 5.9. d17.517.5 of water solns w/v: 5% = 1.019; 10% = 1.038; 20% = 1.076; 30% = 1.113; 40% = 1.149. nD20 10% soln 1.3479. One gram dissolves in 1.1 ml water at 25°; in 0.8 ml at 30°; in 0.41 ml at 50°; in 0.28 ml at 70°; in 0.18 ml at 90°; in 120 ml methanol at 20°. Very sparingly sol in abs alcohol, ether, acetone; sol in hot glacial acetic acid, pyridine, aniline.
Melting point: mp 146°
Optical Rotation: [a]D +112.2° ® +52.7° (c = 10 in water); [a]D20 +52.5° + 0.0188p (p = g/100 ml)
Index of refraction: nD20 10% soln 1.3479
Density: d17.517.5 of water solns w/v: 5% = 1.019; 10% = 1.038; 20% = 1.076; 30% = 1.113; 40% = 1.149
 
Derivative Type: b-Form
Properties: Crystals from hot water + ethanol, from dil acetic acid, or from pyridine, mp 148-155°. [a]D +18.7° ® +52.7° (c = 10 in water).
Melting point: mp 148-155°
Optical Rotation: [a]D +18.7° ® +52.7° (c = 10 in water)
 
Therap-Cat: Antihypoglycemic; fluid and nutrient replenisher.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antihypoglycemic; fluid and nutrient replenisher.
Keywords: Antihypoglycemic; Replenishers/Supplements; Nutrient.

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