Title: Interleukin-1
Additional Names: IL-1; lymphocyte activating factor; LAF; B-cell activating factor; BAF; T-cell replacing factor; TRF; endogenous pyrogen; leukocytic endogenous mediator; mononuclear cell factor
Literature References: Immunoenhancing, pyrogenic, polypeptide factor produced in blood and in a variety of tissues by mononuclear phagocytes responding to antigens or inflammatory agents. Responsible for a wide variety of bioactivities. Elicits a non-antigen specific amplification of cellular and humoral immune responses. Induces production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), collagenase and prostaglandins, q.q.v. Initial identification of factor inducing T-cell proliferation: I. Gery et al., J. Exp. Med. 136, 128, 143 (1972); of factor enhancing antibody production: D. D. Wood, S. L. Gaul, J. Immunol. 113, 925 (1974). Isoln and preliminary chemical characterization: I. Gery, R. E. Handschumacher, Cell. Immunol. 11, 162 (1974); D. D. Wood, J. Immunol. 123, 2395 (1979). Definition and nomenclature: L. A. Aarden et al., ibid. 2928. Identity with endogenous pyrogen: L. J. Rosenwasser, C. A. Dinarello, Cell. Immunol. 63, 134 (1981). Purification of murine IL-1: S. B. Mizel, D. Mizel, J. Immunol. 126, 834 (1981); of human IL-1: J. A. Schmidt, J. Exp. Med. 160, 772 (1984). Exists in several biochemically distinct forms exhibiting charge heterogeneity and differing in amino acid sequence. Produced as ~30,000 mol wt precursor which is subsequently converted to low mol wt form. Cloning and expression of cDNA for murine precursor IL-1: P. T. Lomedico et al., Nature 312, 458 (1984); for human precursor IL-1: P. E. Auron et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81, 7907 (1984); for 2 distinct forms of human IL-1 (IL-1a and IL-1b): C. J. March et al., Nature 315, 641 (1985). Amino acid sequence of dominant species corresponding to IL-1b: P. Cameron et al., J. Exp. Med. 162, 790 (1985). Crystallization of recombinant human IL-1b: D. B. Carter et al., Proteins: Struct. Funct. Genet. 3, 121 (1988). Characterization of membrane-associated IL-1: E. A. Kurt-Jones et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 1204 (1985). Induction of IL-2 production by IL-1: K. A. Smith et al., J. Exp. Med. 151, 1551 (1980); S. Gillis, S. B. Mizel, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 1122 (1981). Effect on B-cells in antibody production: D. D. Wood, J. Immunol. 123, 2400 (1979); P. Lipsky, Contemp. Top. Mol. Immunol. 10, 195 (1985). Effect in inflammatory response: S. B. Mizel et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 2474 (1981). Role in the pathogenesis of the acute-phase response: C. A. Dinarello, N. Engl. J. Med. 311, 1413 (1984). Comparison of bioactivity of 4 forms of human IL-1: D. D. Wood et al., J. Immunol. 134, 895 (1985). Review of inter-relationship with lymphokines: N. M. Kouttab et al., Clin. Chem. 30, 1539-1545 (1984). Reviews: J. J. Oppenheim et al., Fed. Proc. 41, 257-262 (1982); S. B. Mizel, Immunol. Rev. 63, 51-72 (1982); K. Bendtzen, Allergy 38, 219-226 (1983); C. A. Dinarello, Rev. Infect. Dis. 6, 51-95 (1984).
Properties: Isoelectric point (human): 6.8-7.3 (dominant species); 5.3-5.8 (minor species). Isoelectric point (murine): 4.5-5.5. Sensitive to trypsin, chymotrypsin, sodium dodecyl sulfate. Insensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol, neuraminidase, sodium periodate, iodacetamide. Stable at pH 3-10; stable at 56° for 60 min; unstable after 2 min at 100°.

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