Silane
Title: Silane
CAS Registry Number: 7803-62-5
Additional Names: Silicon tetrahydride; silicane; monosilane
Molecular Formula: H4Si
Molecular Weight: 32.12
Percent Composition: H 12.55%, Si 87.44%
Line Formula: SiH4
Literature References: Prepd from aluminum silicide and hydrochloric acid or by electrolysis of an aq soln of sodium, ammonium, manganese, or ferrous chloride using an aluminum-silicon alloy as the positive pole: Buff, Wöhler, Ann. 102, 128 (1857); from magnesium silicide and HCl: Wöhler, ibid. 106, 56 (1858); Stock, Somiesky, Ber. 49, 111 (1916); from zinc silicide and acid: Deville, Caron, Compt. Rend. 45, 163 (1857); from lithium silicide and acid: Moissan, ibid. 135, 1284 (1902); from magnesium silicide and ammonium bromide or chloride in liquid ammonia: Johnson, Isenberg, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 1349 (1935); Clasen, DE 926069 (1952); Angew. Chem. 70, 179 (1958); from lithium aluminum hydride in ether and silicon tetrachloride: Finholt et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 69, 2692 (1947); from silica gel, aluminum oxide and hydrogen: Jackson, US 3068069 (1962 to du Pont); from silicon tetrachloride and sodium aluminum hydride: Mason, Kelly, US 3043664 (1962 to Allied Chem.). Purification: Jacob, Trenner, US 3019087 (1962 to Merck & Co.); Shoemaker, Sumrell, US 3041141 (1962 to Baker Chem.).
Properties: Gas, repulsive odor. d-185 (liq) 0.68. Solidifies at approx -200°. mp -185°; bp -112°. Stable at ordinary temps; completely dec ~400° into silicon and hydrogen; dec by an electric discharge; ignites in an atm of chlorine; ignites in air by raising the temp. Slowly dec in water; practically insol in alc, ether, benzene, chloroform, silicochloroform and silicon tetrachloride. Dec in potassium hydroxide solns.
Melting point: mp -185°
Boiling point: bp -112°
Density: d-185 (liq) 0.68
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin, mucous membranes; nausea, headache. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 278.
Use: Source of hyperpure silicon for semiconductors.

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