Sodium Hypochlorite
Title: Sodium Hypochlorite
CAS Registry Number: 7681-52-9
Molecular Formula: ClNaO
Molecular Weight: 74.44
Percent Composition: Cl 47.63%, Na 30.88%, O 21.49%
Line Formula: NaClO
Literature References: Strong oxidizing and hydrolyzing agent; used in aqueous solutions of various strengths for its bactericidal properties. Prepn as the pentahydrate from NaOH and Cl2 in the presence of water: Sanfourche, Gardent, Bull. Soc. Chim. [4] 35, 1089 (1924); Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry vol. 1, G. Brauer, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1963) pp 309-310. Review of prepn and uses of Dakin's solution, a diluted antiseptic formulation: H. Plagge, Pharm. Ztg. 138, No. 14, 26-31 (1993). Review of toxicology and use as household bleach: F. Racioppi et al., Food Chem. Toxicol. 32, 845-861 (1994); of use in health care facilities: W. A. Rutala, D. J. Weber, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10, 597-610 (1997). Review of use as endodontic irrigant: R. M. Clarkson, A. J. Moule, Aust. Dent. J. 43, 250-256 (1998).
Properties: Prepd as the pentahydrate, crystals, mp 18°. Dec by CO2 from air. Anhydr NaClO may be obtained by freeze-drying in a vacuum (over concd H2SO4). Anhydr NaClO is very explosive. Soly at 0°: 29.3 g/100 ml H2O. Aqueous solutions for household bleach contain ~5.25%. Solutions for use as antiseptics contain ~0.5% sodium hypochlorite and are buffered or stabilized with various agents.
Melting point: mp 18°
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure by ingestion are pain and inflammation of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach; vomiting; circulatory collapse, cold and clammy skin, cyanosis, shallow respirations; confusion, delirium, coma; edema of pharynx, larynx, glottis with stridor and obstruction; perforation of esophagus, stomach. Potential symptoms of overexposure by fume inhalation are severe respiratory tract irritation, pulmonary edema. Direct contact may cause vesicular eruptions on skin and eczematoid dermatitis. See Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 202-205.
Use: Aq soln as bleach, disinfectant; chlorination of swimming pools; sanitation of drinking water.
Therap-Cat: Antiseptic, disinfectant.
Keywords: Antiseptic/Disinfectant; Halogens/Halogen Containing Compounds.

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