Xenon
Title: Xenon
CAS Registry Number: 7440-63-3
Literature References: Xe; at. wt 131.29; at. no. 54. Valences 2, 4, 6, 8. Group VIIIA(18), also known as Group 0. A noble gas characterized by an electronic structure in which the outer p subshell is entirely filled. Naturally occurring stable isotopes (mass numbers): 124 (0.10%); 126 (0.09%); 128 (1.91%); 129 (26.4%); 130 (4.1%); 131 (21.2%); 132 (26.9%); 134 (10.4%); 136 (8.9%); known artificial, radioactive isotopes: 110-123; 125; 127; 133; 135; 137-145. Discovered in the final residues obtained after evaporating liq air: Ramsay, Travers, Proc. Roy. Soc. 63 [A], 405 (1898). Occurs frequently in gases evolved from thermal springs; concentration in air: 0.087 ppm by vol. Obtained commercially from the atmosphere by distillation-liquefaction process. Extraction from liq air residues: Allen, Moore, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 53, 2512 (1931). Xenon platinum hexafluoride was the first reported xenon compound: N. Bartlett, Proc. Chem. Soc. London 1962, 218. Teratogenicity study: G. A. Lane et al., Science 210, 899 (1980). Review of biology, chemistry and anesthetic properties: R. M. Featherstone, C. A. Muelbaecher, Pharmacol. Rev. 15, 97 (1963). Review of diagnostic use of radioactive compds for pulmonary studies: F. Fazio, P. Wollman, Clin. Physiol. 1, 323 (1981); for cerebral blood flow: H. Yonas et al., Adv. Tech. Stand. Neurosurg. 15, 3 (1987). Reviews of chemistry and compds: Noble-Gas Compounds, H. H. Hyman, Ed. (Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1963) 404 pp; J. H. Holloway, Noble-Gas Chemistry (Methuen, London, 1968) 213 pp; Sladky, "Noble Gases" in MTP Int. Rev. Sci.: Inorg. Chem., Ser. One vol. 3, V. Gutman, Ed. (Butterworths, London, 1972) pp 1-52; Cockett, Smith, "The Monatomic Gases" in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry vol. 1, J. C. Bailar, Jr. et al., Eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973) pp 139-211; Bartlett, Sladky, ibid., pp. 213-330; S.-C. Hwang, W. R. Weltmer, Jr. in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 13 (John Wiley & Sons, 4th ed., 1995) pp 1-38; G. J. Schrobilgen, J. M. Whalen, ibid. pp 38-53; Chemistry of the Elements N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Eds. (Pergamon Press, New York, 1984) pp 1042-1059.
Properties: Colorless, odorless, tasteless, relatively inert, monatomic gas; will form compds with highly electronegative elements such as O, F, Cl. Soly of gas in water (20°): 108.1 cm3/kg water. Triple point temp 161.35 K, press 81.66 kPa. Critical temp 289.74 K, critical press 5840 kPa, critical d 1100 kg/m3. Gas: d0 (101.3 kPa) 5.8971 kg/m3, d (normal bp) 11 kg/m3. Liquid: normal bp -108.13°, d (normal bp) 3057 kg/m3, d (triple pt) 3084 kg/m3, heat of vaporization (normal bp) 12.640 kJ/mol. Solid: d (triple pt) 3540 kg/m3, heat of vaporization (triple pt) 15.1 kJ/mol, heat of fusion (triple pt) 2.3 kJ/mol. Solid form exists as face-centered cubic crystals at normal pressure. Spectrum: Collie, Proc. Roy. Soc. 97 [A], 349 (1920). Emission spectra: T. Jacksier, R. M. Barnes, Appl. Spectrosc. 48, 65 (1994).
Boiling point: bp -108.13°
Density: d 1100 kg/m3; d0 (101.3 kPa) 5.8971 kg/m3; d (normal bp) 11 kg/m3; d (normal bp) 3057 kg/m3; d (triple pt) 3084 kg/m3; d (triple pt) 3540 kg/m3
 
Derivative Type: Xenon-133
CAS Registry Number: 14932-42-4
Trademarks: Xeneisol Xe 133 (Mallinckrodt)
 
Derivative Type: Hydrate
CAS Registry Number: 60212-94-4
Properties: Xe.xH2O, mp 24°, and a deuterate, Xe.6D2O, have been prepd: R. de Forcrand, Compt. Rend. 176, 355 (1923); 181, 15 (1925); Tamman, Krige, Z. Anorg. Chem. 146, 179 (1925).
Melting point: mp 24°
 
Derivative Type: Xenon difluoride
CAS Registry Number: 13709-36-9
Molecular Formula: F2Xe
Molecular Weight: 169.29
Percent Composition: F 22.44%, Xe 77.56%
Literature References: Prepd from the elements: Weeks et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84, 4612 (1962); Hoppe et al., Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 324, 214 (1963).
Properties: Colorless crystals; d 4.32. Triple pt. 129.03°: Schreiner et al., J. Phys. Chem. 72, 1162 (1968). Sublimes without decompn. Soly in water at 0°: 25 g/l.
Density: d 4.32
 
Derivative Type: Xenon tetrafluoride
CAS Registry Number: 13709-61-0
Molecular Formula: F4Xe
Molecular Weight: 207.29
Percent Composition: F 36.66%, Xe 63.34%
Literature References: First prepd by direct combination of the elements at 6 atm and 400°: Claassen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 84, 3593 (1962).
Properties: Colorless crystals; d 4.04. Triple pt 117.10°: Schreiner et al., loc. cit. Sublimes without decompn. Hydrolyzes to form Xe, O2, HF and XeO3.
Density: d 4.04
 
Derivative Type: Xenon hexafluoride
CAS Registry Number: 13693-09-9
Molecular Formula: F6Xe
Molecular Weight: 245.28
Percent Composition: F 46.47%, Xe 53.53%
Literature References: Laboratory prepn: Chernick et al., Inorg. Synth. 8, 258 (1966).
Properties: Colorless solid; greenish-yellow vapor; vapor press. about 30 mm at 25°. mp 49.48°; bp 75.57°; d24.4(solid) 3.411; d55.2(liq) 3.173: Schreiner et al., J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4838 (1969). Hydrolyzed by water to form XeOF4 and XeO3. More powerful oxidizing and fluorinating agent than XeF2 and XeF4. Cannot be stored in glass or quartz containers.
Melting point: mp 49.48°
Boiling point: bp 75.57°
Density: d24.4(solid) 3.411; d55.2(liq) 3.173: Schreiner et al., J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4838 (1969)
 
Derivative Type: Xenon trioxide
CAS Registry Number: 13776-58-4
Molecular Formula: O3Xe
Molecular Weight: 179.29
Percent Composition: O 26.77%, Xe 73.23%
Literature References: Prepn: Williamson, Koch, Science 139, 1046 (1963); Jaselskis et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 88, 2149 (1966).
Properties: Powerful explosive, formed when XeF4 and XeF6 are hydrolyzed. Colorless, hygroscopic solid; d 4.55. Aqueous solns, "xenic acid", may be prepd in concns >2M.
Density: d 4.55
 
CAUTION: Can act as a simple asphyxiant by displacing air. See: Matheson Gas Data Book (Matheson Co., Inc., 4th ed., East Rutherford, NJ, 1966) pp 499-500.
Use: Gas in lamps designed to resemble natural daylight; in lamps of extremely high brilliance. Isotopes in leak detection systems for nuclear reactors.
Therap-Cat: Anesthetic (inhalation). Xenon133 as diagnostic aid (radioactive imaging agent).
Keywords: Anesthetic (Inhalation).

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