Title: Podophyllum
Literature References: Genus of perennial flowering plants of the family Podophyllaceae, formerly, Berberidaceae; represented in traditional medicine by two species: Podophyllum peltatum L., known as American podophyllum, and P. hexandrum R., syn. P. emodi Wall., known as Indian podophyllum. Medicinal portions are the dried rhizome and the resin extracted from it. Has been used as a cathartic, emetic and cholagogue and externally as a caustic. Constituents are similar in both species, but vary in concentration. The antimitotic lignin, podophyllotoxin, q.v., is the principal active component. History, isoln procedures, structures: J. L. Hartwell, A. W. Schrecker, Fortschr. Chem. Org. Naturst. 15, 83-166 (1958); and review of medicinal uses: J. Singh, N. C. Shah, Curr. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants 16, 53-83 (1994). HPLC determn of constituents in plant extracts: J. K. Bastos et al., Phytochem. Anal. 6, 101 (1995). Production of cytotoxic lignins by cell culture: M. Petersen, A. W. Alfermann, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 55, 135 (2001).
Derivative Type: American podophyllum
Additional Names: Mayapple; American mandrake; Indian apple; vegetable calomel
Literature References: Habit. North America. Constit. Chiefly podophyllotoxin (0.25-1.0%), a- and b-peltatins, quercetin, kaempferol.
Derivative Type: Indian podophyllum
Additional Names: Papra; ban-kakari
Literature References: Habit. Himalayas, east Asia. Constit. Chiefly podophyllotoxin (1.0-4.0%), 4ยข-demethylpodophyllotoxin, podophyllotoxone, quercetin, kaempferol.
Derivative Type: Podophyllin
CAS Registry Number: 9000-55-9
Additional Names: Podophyllum resin
Literature References: Dried ethanolic extract obtained from the dried rhizomes and roots. Description, pharmacology and comparison with podophyllotoxin in treatment of anogenital warts: E. Longstaff, G. von Krogh, Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 33, 117-137 (2001).
Properties: Light brown to greenish-yellow powder, darkens on exposure to light. Irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Therap-Cat: Caustic.

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